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The Application Value of CT Lymphangiography in Diagnosis and Grading in Patients with Primary Chyluria
HAO Qi, ZHANG Yan, LI Xingpeng, LIU Mengke, SUN Xiaoli, WANG Rengui
 doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2022.106
Abstract(22) HTML PDF(0)
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Objective: To investigate the application value of CT lymphangiography in diagnosis and grading in patients with primary chyluria. Methods: Clinical and CTL imaging data of 79 patients diagnosed with primary chyluria were collected retrospectively. For CTL, the indexs were (1) Involved kidney and distribution of abnormal lymphatic vessels in the kidney: unilateral or bilateral kidney,renal sinus, renal parenchymal, suprahilar area and subhilar area; (2) Distribution of perirenal and retroperitoneal abnormal lymphatic vessels: retroperitoneal area,lumbar trunk area, renal perivascular area, fatty capsule area, adrenal area, etc; (3) Distribution of dilated lymphatic vessels and lymphatic reflux in chest, abdomen and pelvis; (4) Other abnormal manifestations: lymphatic-related abnormal changes in the chest, abdomen, pelvic cavity and bone; (5) Imaging grading: the imaging grading was carried out according to the range of retroperitoneal involvement, and the retroperitoneal area was divided into 10 areas, including left and right suprahilar area, subhilar area, perirenal area, renal perivascular area and lumbar trunk area, involvement of five or fewer areas were graded as mild, while involvement of six or more were graded as severe. In addition, clinical grading was carried out according to clinical manifestations. The clinical characteristics and CTL signs of patients with primary chyluria were statistically described by the composition ratio of classification variables, and the consistency of imaging grade and clinical grade of patients with primary chyluria was evaluated by Kappa test. Results: CTL showed abnormal lipiodol deposition in kidney in 74 cases (93.7%), unilateral kidney in 55 cases (69.6%), bilateral kidneys in 19 cases (24.1%), renal sinus in 74 cases (93.7%), renal parenchyma in 37 cases (46.8%); suprahilar area in 61 cases (77.2%), 52 cases (65.8%) were unilateral and 9 cases (11.4%) were bilateral; subhilar area in 61 cases (77.2%), 47 cases (59.5%) were unilateral and 14 cases (17.7%) were bilateral; retroperitoneal area in 78 cases (98.7%); lumbar trunk area in 76 cases (96.2%), 20 cases (25.3%) were unilateral and 56 cases (70.9%) were bilateral; perivascular area in 72 cases (91.1%), 45 cases (57.0%) were unilateral and 27 cases (34.2%) were bilateral; fatty capsule in 14 cases (17.7%), 13 cases (16.5%) were unilateral and 1 case (1.3%) was bilateral; adrenal area in 12 cases (15.2%); bladder in 31 cases (39.2%), perivesical area in 12 cases (15.2%), iliac perivascular area in 73 cases (92.4%), abdominal and pelvic wall in 14 cases (17.7%), perineal area in 12 cases (15.2%), perirectal area in 14 cases (17.7%), mesentery in 26 cases (32.9%), intestinal wall in 11 cases (13.9%), intestinal canal in 5 cases (6.3%), peripancreatic area in 15 cases (18.9%), perisplenic area in 2 cases (2.5%), perihepatic area in 7 cases (8.8%), hilus of the lung in 1 case (1.3%), mediastinum in 14 cases (17.7%), pericardium in 1 case (1.3%), extrapleural area in 25 cases (31.6%), chest wall in 2 cases (2.5%), skeleton in 2 cases (2.5%), end of thoracic duct in 70 cases (88.6%). Among the 79 patients with primary chyluria, according to clinical classification, 27 cases were mild and 52 cases were severe; according to imaging classification, 40 cases were mild and 39 cases were severe. The consistency of the two grades was moderate. Conclusion: CTL can evaluate the distribution and range of intrarenal, perirenal and retroperitoneal dilated lymphatic vessels accurately, and evaluate the abnormal lymphatic vessels in the chest, abdomen and pelvis and thoracic duct in patients with primary chyluria.It can provide image basis for the diagnosis, grading and treatment of primary chyluria.
CT Lymphangiography (CTL) in Different Type of Primary Intestinal Lymphangiectasia (PIL): A Comparative Study
DONG Jian, XIN Jianfeng, YUAN Guangxiao, ZHANG Chunyan, GUAN Xiaojiao, GUO Jia, LI Xingpeng, ZHANG yan, HAO Qi, SHEN Wenbin, WANG Rengui
 doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2022.115
Abstract(49) HTML PDF(4)
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Objective: To explore the clinical and imaging characteristics and application value CT lymphangiography (CTL) in patients with different types of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL). Methods: Patients diagnosed as PIL in our center were recruited in this retrospective study from January 2016 to December 2019, All CTL data were blindly reviewed by two radiologists separately, and the evaluation indicators included: sex, onset age, symptoms and signs, serum albumin, wall thickening, serous cavity effusion, abnormal distribution of lymphatics, lymph reflux, lymph nodes, fistula and abnormal lymphatics around neck area. Based on the abnormal lymphatics in intestinal wall and/or mesentery, PIL was classified into type Ⅰ (positive type) and type Ⅱ (negative type). The clinical and imaging features were compared between the two groups. Results: 34 PIL patients were recruited in this study, including 15 cases of Ⅰ and 19 cases of Ⅱ. Type I showed older age of first onset (15.3±9.4 vs. 8.3±3.8), higher rate of diarrhea, and lower rate of limb and/or facial edema than type Ⅱ, with no statistical difference in sex and serum albumin. For imaging features comparisons, type Ⅰ demonstrated higher rate of abnormal dilated lymphatics and fistula, lower rate of increased attenuation of mesentery and lymph nodes, while no statistical difference was found between wall thickening, serous cavity effusion, lymph reflux and abnormal dilated lymphatics around neck area. Conclusion: CTL demonstrated capability of evaluation in detection of location, distribution and range of abnormal lymphatics in PIL. Based on CTL, the imaging classification of PIL was proposed. Different types of PIL showed different clinical and imaging features, which was useful for therapeutic adoptions.
Analysis of Spiral CT Phenotypes and Features of Primary Intestinal Lymphoma
YU Ming, HU Jiayuan, SONG Yan, LI Saying
 doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2022.090
Abstract(90) HTML PDF(37)
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Objective: To investigate the CT manifestations of primary intestinal lymphoma (PIL) so as to improve the diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Methods: 21 patients with PIL confirmed pathologically in our hospital from March 2013 to February 2022 were enrolled in this study, their CT phenotypes and features were analyzed. Results: All 21 cases of PIL were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 12 cases were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 3 cases were follicular lymphoma, 2 cases were NK/T-cell lymphoma, 2 cases were T-cell lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) were identified 1 case each. The lesions were located in the colon in 7 cases, ileum in 5 cases, small intestine mesentery in 4 cases, ileocecum in 2 cases, jejunum in 1 case, rectum in 1 case, and both right hemicolon and ileocecum in 1 case. CT findings showed intestinal wall infiltration in 3 cases, intestinal wall thickening in 3cases, mass in 4 cases, aneurysmal dilation in 7 cases and mesenteric multiple nodules in 4 cases. CT enhancement mostly showed homogeneous mild/moderate enhancement. Among the 21 patients, 2 case was complicated by by intestinal perforation, and 2 cases were complicated by intestinal obstruction. Conclusion: The characteristic imaging features of CT in PIL include multifocal involvement of the intestines, marked mural thickening in a focal or diffuse manner, aneurysmal dilatation of lumen, eccentric intestinal mass of uniform density and mesenteric "sandwich sign". Recognition of these signs is of diagnostic value for primary intestinal lymphoma.
Application of CT Lymphangiography in the Diagnosiis of Primary Pulmonary Lymphedema
ZHANG Yan, HAO Qi, LIU Mengke, LI Xingpeng, SUN Xiaoli, WANG Rengui
 doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2022.096
Abstract(21) HTML PDF(2)
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Objective: To explore the clinical value of CT lymphangiography in diagnosing primary pulmonary lymphedema. Methods: 52 patients who were diagnosed by clinical, imaging and pathology as primary pulmonary lymphedema were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent CT lymphangiography. Two experienced radiologists carried out double-blind film reading of the CT lymphangiography manifestations, and observed the abnormal perfomance of lymphatic vessels in the chest as well as CT signs of other chest diseases.Results: CT lymphangiography showed contrast agent abnormity deposited in all 52 patients: the end of thoracic duct was found in 38 cases (73.1%), mediastinum in 34 cases (65.4%), hilar in 22 cases (42.3%), pleura in 18 cases (34.6%), pericardium in 15 cases (28.8%), diaphragm in 5 cases (9.6%), hepatic hilum in 9 cases (17.3%), pancreas in 5 cases (9.6%), retroperitoneum in 12 cases (23.1%). Abnormal CT changes including: (1) alveolar nodule-like ground glass opacity in 19 cases (36.5%), patchy ground glass opacity in 23 cases (44.2%), atelectasis in 11 cases (21.2%), pulmonary nodules in 3 cases (5.8%). (2) the thickening of bronchovascular bundle in 43 cases (82.7%), the thickening of interlobular septum in 43 cases (82.7%), the thickening of intralobular interstitium in 4 cases (7.7%), frog-spawn sign in 7 cases (13.5%). (3) abnormal mediastinum changes in 34 cases (65.4%). (4) other chest CT abnormalities including: the crazy-paving sign in 2 cases (3.8%), pleural effusion in 18 cases (34.6%), pericardial effusion in 18 case (34.6%). Conclusion: CT lymphangiography can indirectly predict the abnormality of lymphatics and the presence or absence of lymphatic reflux by showing the abnormal deposition and distribution of contrast agents, and thus can provide valuable imaging basis for the diagnosis and treatment of primary pulmonary lymphedema.
 doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2022.154
Abstract(6) HTML PDF(0)
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Low Dose CT Image Reconstruction Method Based on CNN and Transformer Coupling Network
QIAO Yiyu, QIAO Zhiwei
 doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2022.114
Abstract(8) HTML PDF(1)
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Under the condition that the number of projection angles is constant, reducing the radiation dose at each angle is an effective way to realize low-dose CT. However, this makes the reconstructed image noisy. At present, the deep learning image denoising method represented by convolutional neural networks (CNN) has become a classical method for low-dose CT image denoising. Inspired by the good performance of transformer in computer vision tasks, this paper proposes a CNN transformer coupling network (CTC) to further improve the performance of CT image denoising. CTC network makes comprehensive use of CNN's local information association ability and transformer's global information capture ability, constructs eight core network blocks composed of CNN components and an improved transformer component, and interconnects them based on residual connection mechanism and information reuse mechanism. Compared with the existing four denoising networks, CTC network has stronger denoising ability and can realize high-precision low-dose CT image reconstruction.
CT Theory
Combined Boundary of CPML and Feature Analysis within Frequency-Space Domain
LI Guihua, WANG Shulin, ZHANG Wenbo, XU Ziyu
2022, 31(3): 269-279.   doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2021.075
Abstract(159) HTML PDF(42)
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In the process of numerical simulation, boundary reflection is an important factor which affect the numerical simulation results. The actual underground medium holds anisotropic characteristics. The traditional perfectly matched layer boundary (PML) shows good effect on small incident angle seismic waves, yet it can not effectively absorb low-frequency waves and large angle incident waves. To solve the problem of boundary reflection, in this paper, we propose a combined boundary condition using convolution perfectly matched layer (CPML) and eigenvalue analysis method to be applied in the numerical simulation of finite difference method in frequency space domain. The numerical simulation experiment and boundary reflection absorption effect analysis of the combined boundary condition verify that the proposed method is a reliable artificial absorption boundary condition, which can effectively suppress the boundary reflection generated in the process of wave field simulation.
Geotomography
Application of Joint Inversion of Different Electrode Arrays in Ancient Mausoleum Detection
WEI Yunong, SHI Zhanjie, YU Tianxiang
2022, 31(3): 280-292.   doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2022.008
Abstract(104) HTML PDF(25)
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Electrical resistivity tomography is a popular geophysical method and has been applied in shallow exploration, involving hydrology, archaeology, and geology, in recent years. To enhance the resolution of electrical resistivity tomography and deal with complex geological settings, we propose the weighted combined inversion of different electrode arrays based on the Jacobian matrix, and then, taking Wenner and dipole-dipole datasets as examples, test its effectiveness on synthetic models and a field case of detecting ancient mausoleum. The results show that the resolution of the weighted combined inversion results is superior to that of a single electrode array in transverse and longitudinal directions, and in the field case, it is demonstrated that the weighted combined inversion algorithm can alleviate the inherent defects of U-shaped electrode array, reduce the ambiguity of inversion, and better constrain the width of the mausoleum.
Application of Double Width Seismic Data to Channel Sand Body Prediction of X Gas Field in the East China Sea
HU Wei, QIN Dewen, LI Qin, YU Weizhe, HUANG Jun
2022, 31(3): 293-304.   doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2021.017
Abstract(172) HTML PDF(40)
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Due to that the main reservoirs of the X gas field in the East China Sea were deeply buried and have large lateral changes, the conventional seismic data resulted in poor quality and low resolution, which couldn’t meet the increasingly refined geological requirements in exploration and development. Seismic data with wideband and wide azimuth was obtained by using the acquisition method of three ships and four sources with oblique cables, which held the characteristics of high resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio and high fidelity. By taking advantage of the superior information of wideband and wide azimuth seismic data which was high-resolutional and anisotropic, combined with the simultaneous prestack inversion, the inversion body of sensitive elastic parameters of channel sand bodies in different azimuths can be obtained, and superimpose multiple azimuth inversion bodies perpendicular to the direction of the river channel to carry out fine predictions of channel sand bodies. Compared the conventional seismic data, reservoir inversion based on wideband and wide azimuth seismic data improved the prediction accuracy of channel sand bodies, laying a foundation for the progressive exploration and development of the X gas field in the East China Sea.
Application of Lame Parameter Direct Inversion in Hydrocarbon Detection of Low-porosity and Low-permeability Reservoirs in N Structure in East China Sea Basin
ZHANG Yan, QIN Denwen, HUANG Jun
2022, 31(3): 305-316.   doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2021.088
Abstract(626) HTML PDF(62)
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The main target layer of the N structure in the East China Sea is a delta subaqueous distributary channel sand body developed under a strong hydrodynamic environment. The distribution of planar sand layer is discontinuous and the lateral heterogeneity is very strong. Under the influence of deep burial compaction and diagenesis, the reservoir is characterized by low porosity and low permeability, and the properties of rock-physics are overlapped seriously. In addition, the lack of large angle information of deep seismic data is a common problem. It is of great importance to implement the fluid distribution range of tight reservoir in the study area for the design and deployment of exploration and development. In this paper, a new method of deep seismic fluid description is introduced based on direct inversion of lame parameters. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis of rock-physics of measured well data, optimal highly sensitive hydrocarbon detection factor is selected. Furthermore, the AVO properties of Lambda parameters are extracted from the pre-stack trace set by combining with the parametric equations of the two AVO models of Lambda parameters. Then, the AVO properties are directly transformed into the interlayer elastic information by using the colored inversion technique. Finally, the seismic fluid sensitive elastic data is obtained to guide the seismic fluid description. The practical application shows that the hydrocarbon detection results of this method are compatible with the logging interpretation achievement, and can effectively describe the low-porosity and low-permeability reservoirs fluid development law of the study area, and can provide important technical support for the discovery of oil and gas resources in new fields.
Industrical CT
Coded Aperture Computed Tomography Via Generative Adversarial U-net
WANG Zhiteng, MAO Tianyi, ZHANG Xin, ZHU Shujin, ZHU Jianjian, DAI Xiubin
2022, 31(3): 317-327.   doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2021.070
Abstract(210) HTML PDF(40)
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Generative adversarial U-net for coded aperture computed tomography (CT) is proposed in this paper to alleviate the tradeoff between the non-continuous sparse projections and the ill-posedness iterative reconstruction problem. A non-continuous sparse projection model is presented based on generative adversarial U-net and the corresponding joint penalty function is formulated. Simulations using real datasets show that CT images with 256×256 pixels can be reconstructed with peak signal-to-noise ration more than 30 dB at only 5% transmittance. Furthermore, the computational time in the reconstructions is reduced by two orders of magnitude when compared with the state-of-the-art iterative algorithms in coded aperture computed tomography.
Medical Imaging and Image Processing
Application of Deep Learning Reconstruction Algorithm in Upper Abdomen CT
WEN Deying, YANG Jieyin, WANG Qin, LI Zhen, WANG Hanxiao, WANG Aijie, DENG Qiao, TANG Lu, WU Xi, YAO Jin, LU Chunyan, SUN Jiayu
2022, 31(3): 329-336.   doi: 10.15953/j.ctta.2021.005
Abstract(170) HTML PDF(38)
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Objective: To explore the application of deep learning image reconstruction (DLIR) algorithm in upper abdominal CT imaging by analyzing the image quality of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm and DLIR. Methods: Retrospectively included 75 patients’ upper abdominal CT plain scan images, using adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction algorithm ASIR (30%, 50%, 70%, 90%) and deep learning reconstruction algorithm (DL-L, DL-M, DL-H) to reconstruct images, a total of 7 groups. Measured the CT and SD values of the liver, pancreas, and erector spinae , and calculated the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to noise ratio (CNR). Objective indicators were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. Two radiologists scored the image quality and noise, and compared them with Friedman M test. Results: (1) The SD value, SNR, and liver CNR of the seven reconstructed images had statistically significant differences. (2) The difference in CT value, SD value, SNR value and CNR value at each ROI between DL-L and ASIR 50%, DL-M and ASIR 70%, DL-H and ASIR 90% was small. (3) The SNR value of the three DLIR algorithms increased as the level increased, and the difference was statistically significant; and the SNR value of the DL-H algorithm was higher than ASIR 30% and ASIR 50%, and the SD value was lower than the other five reconstruction algorithms except for the ASIR 90%. (4) The difference in the subjective scores of the seven groups of images was statistically significant. The algorithm DL-H had the best image quality and the lowest noise, DL-M, ASIR 90%, DL-L, ASIR 70%, ASIR 50%, ASIR 30% image noise in sequence increased. Conclusion: The DLIR algorithm can reduce the image noise of the upper abdomen and improve the image quality. As the level increased, the image noise decreased, the quality improved, and the signal-to-noise ratio increased.
Spectral CT
Medical CT